The Realities of Knives - Marc MacYoung

Okay, I admit it, I get cranky about all the nonsense that is promoted about knife fighting,  fighting knives, tactical knives,  knife defense, defending against a knife and how the Filipino martial arts will turn you into a deadly knife fighter (able to leap tall buildings in a single bound).

Those of us who have been there -- having faced the horror and the terror of having someone actually try to kill us -- take a dim view of this kind of swaggering arrogance and ignorance.

Not only is it dangerous to teach, but it totally ignores the awful realities of facing a knife in the hands of someone who wants to kill you. Much less what it's going to do to your psyche if you ever stab someone. If you ever find yourself in a situation involving knives, the difference between reality and what you've been told will either kill you or put you in prison.


A Knife is a Tool

To this end, let's look at some of the realities concerning knives.

To begin with a knife is not a weapon, it is a tool. It is because of its popularity of carry, however, a tool that can be -- and often is -- used as a weapon. But then again, so is a ballpeen hammer in certain circles. That's a tool when used as a weapon, not only gives you greater range than a knife, but greater stopping power too. (Bet your knife-fighting master didn't tell you that did he?) If you are looking for weapons, there are much more effective ones out there than that cute little folder in your pocket. And while maybe the punks don't know it, the serious bad guys do... and that's what they carry. All this babbling about knives as self-defense weapons is going to leave you woefully unprepared to handle the big nasties.

There is also another reason to remember that a knife is a tool -- not a weapon. Tools are legal to carry, weapons aren't. If you are caught carrying something marketed as a  superstud, killer-commado, ultimate blade art fighting knife you're going to be in trouble. And if you are dumb enough to use it, don't think that marketing isn't going to come up in court to scuttle your claim of self-defense.

So you can take all that "gear queer" knife fighter fantasy marketing about the best fighting/tactical knives for what it is...someone trying to get your money.

Now if you want to talk about merits of a tool's manufacture, its utility design, its functionality or its collectability that's another matter entirely.

If it is used as a weapon: a knife is a lethal force instrument.

As such it's use -- and abuse -- will be judged according to those legal standards regarding self-defense -- not what your hot and heavy little imagination can come up as excuses to carve someone. If your actions do not live up to these standards maybe you can chant those macho sayings loud enough to drown out your cellmate's chanting "Who'z yer daddy? Who'z yer daddy?" as he is raping you.

Unfortunately, most of what is taught out there regarding knife work -- and what people believe is REAL knife fighting -- should come not with a guarantee of how deadly it is, but with a complementary tube of KY jelly...because you're going to be needing it if you "ever have to use it."

As students who have used this flawed training have found out ... the hard way.

Dueling vs. Survival

Let's put the record straight here: Knife defense occurs under the most stressful and hostile conditions possible.

What do I mean by this? Simple, in order for you to legally use a knife in "self-defense" someone has to be in the process of trying to kill you. Not "oh dear me, I'm scared that this big bad person might try to beat me up" conditions, I mean someone is legitimately trying to put your ass down for an extended dirt nap. It ain't no fear of what could happen, it's really happening. If you think you've been scared before, just wait until this happens.

Under these conditions, you not only have the raw terror of someone trying to kill you and the problems associated with stopping his actions, but you have one hell of case of performance anxiety going on to boot. Which, as you well know, doing something while nervous is difficult -- even if you know it well. Mistakes happen and things don't work out as well as planned. And that's under normal circumstances, not someone trying to kill you. When that happens, "nervous" reaches all kinds of new levels.

So on top of the potentially lethal question of "does what I know work under these conditions?"  you have another problem. That being, even if it does work, doing it under extreme conditions and adrenal stress. Failure, in either area, is bad.

Oh, and guess what? just to further complicate the issue about 99% of what I have seen being taught out there as knife fighting/knife self-defense is going to fail under the conditions of  legal knife use. (Take a look at Brandon Otto'sIntroduction to Use of Force page for what that means) It works great if you are the aggressor, but tends to fall apart if you aren't. And discovering this in mid flight is going to really put you under stress about how to extract yourself from this mess.


Face it, odds are either your training is going to get you killed when you need it or, you're going togo to prison for using it when it wasn't justified.

The reason I say this is because what most people are training to do is, by and large, duel with a knife. An act that makes them an aggressor! They are not training to survive, much less be effective, against the majority of knife use.  There are many critical differences between the different types of attacks -- and just as importantly, knife displays. And you need to know what these differences are, what's involved and what is the most effective response under those differing conditions. Because while knife fights are rare, knife attacks aren't.

Background And What I Am NOT Saying

Unlike many so-called "knife fighting experts" I have been in multiple situations where knives were used. In case you missed it folks, I just said that over and above my training in knifework,  in my life I have used knives on other human beings, had them used against me, watched them used on numerous occasions and stood over the results of knives having been used on what was a person. Not one or two incidents, nor hundreds, but enough so, that even if I tried (and I have), I can't count them all (1).

Putting it mildly, they suck.

Having said that I have been there and done that, let me also state: I am not claiming to have the ultimate truth, nor am I promoting my "knife fighting system," with this page. In fact,  when it comes to knifework my opinion of the subject is best summed up by Masaad Ayoob in his Judicious Use of Lethal Force (LFI1) course. Paraphrased: Using lethal force is like chemotherapy. It is a horrible, traumatic, painful and life altering experience. One that no sane healthy person would willing submit themselves. But when the choice is that or dying of cancer -- you take the treatment.

I can personally attest to the validity of Mas's words. Having to use a knife, will have traumatic psychological/emotional/spiritual impact on your life. An impact that will negatively affect you for the rest of your life. If you think it's bad now, wait until after. Using a weapon on another human being cannot be undone, and you have an entire life to reflect on the reality of what you have done. What you thought was so bad/cool/justified in the heat of the moment takes on a different perspective as self-justification fails over the years.

As such, I am the absolute last one to encourage using a knife on another human being unless you are in immediate danger of losing your life. I am definitely against willfully engaging in "knife fighting."   Having said this, it has been my unfortunate experience to have encountered many systems -- whether they mean to or not -- that appear to encourage these very things.

What did Virgil say about the Gates of Hell are open day and night? Hell's always open for business and the highway there isn't paved with good intentions, it's paved with ignoring reality and only looking at what you want something to be about. Telling yourself that you're some kind of real bad-ass because you train in a deadly knife fighting system is a good start for making that trip. And don't you worry, there are a lot of instructors who will take your money and help you head down that highway by giving you the components to tailor your fantasy.

Macho Instructor

In case you think this is somewhat harsh, just remember this is experience talking. Not only mine, but that of many others who have used knives on people. Knife work isn't a fantasy, it is a living nightmare. One that macho instructors who are selling knife fighting neither know about, or if they do, then they don't warn you about it. There's a big difference between reality and fantasy, namely that reality has a long term aftermath. Oh and BTW,  if macho boy really has done all the stuff he is claiming and he ain't twitchy about it, he's sociopath. And that isn't someone you want to learn from or give your trust to.

If encouraging this kind of self-damage weren't bad enough, the training  I have commonly seen, realistically, only addresses a small percentage of how knives are used out there. Yes, knife-to-knife fights do happen, but they are only a minute percentage of actual knife use. Namely because they tend to be limited to very specific ethnic and socio-economic groups. There exists  a wide variety of ways that knives are used. Most of which are not addressed by most training commonly available

It is these differences that I address on this page. I am reporting what is happening out there and the complexities involved. Differences and complexities that you need to know about before you make the fatal assumption that your training prepared you for everything regarding surviving a knife encounter.

Having said that, let me also add: The separations and distinctions that I make on this page are not presented as absolutes. They are models to explain factors involved in knife use -- not pronouncements from the mountain about the whole of knife use. Therefore any attempt to make them so, is on the part of the reader, not the author.

To make sure that I was communicating clearly, I  ran this page past a group of people who's fighting skills, experience, martial arts knowledge, legal savvy and critical thinking skills I respect. Several pointed out a potential misunderstanding, which clearing up required a large amount of extra text. Let's start with the most common misunderstanding. What I want to address in this section  is readers assuming I'm talking about specifics when I am in fact, talking about a more generalized idea.

When I discuss knife use, I am not talking about any system, style, specific training or instructor's program.

This confusion over what I am talking about largely arises from a combination of misconceptions of what is involved in bladework, people's tendency to seek absolutes and their tendency to want to put things into familiar boxes/categories. Mix this in with sleazy marketing that not only preys on these habits, but, in fact, encourages misconceptions, and you end up with all kinds of problems.

This includes misunderstandings about what I am saying because people think they already know about knife work because they study (insert style name here). One of the more common misconceptions is them attempting to put everything into a "style box." Let me give you an example, later in this page I talk about a "dedicated attack"  I am talking about a mindset/application, not a system. I am especially not talking about any so-called prison knife fighting style (2).

Nor am I talking about a WWII combative or a martial art. What I am talking about is a mental/tactical approach to knife work. A mindset and set of strategies that supercedes specific styles or systems. And yet, when I mentioned dedicated attacks some people automatically assumed I was talking about such mythical organized prison knife systems. WRONG! I am talking about a dedicated attack.

There are common tactics to dedicated attacks. Fundamentally  military knife use, prison hits, and plain old homicide -- which are all dedicated attacks -- have more in common than differences. The commonality of dedicated attack is based more in mindset than it is in technique. It is that dedicated mindset that gives rise to effective tactics and application -- not a particular system. The details of the attack are exactly that, details.

On top of all this, trying to put a dedicated attack in the box of a specific system is a logical fallacy: A (prison knife) attack is most often a dedicated attack, but not all dedicated attacks are (prison knife) attacks. Take whatever system/style you know and put it in between the parenthesis's of that last sentence. When you do that, you will begin to see what I mean by saying that the types of attack are not style specific. I am talking general categories here. Remember: The box fits inside the room, not the room inside the box.Systems and styles are boxes, not the room. The room is the nature of the attack.

Having said this, let me also add: To assume that I am talking about the superiority of a specific knife fighting system over other kinds training is another error (3).

Both assumptions are common -- and mistaken -- ideas arising from another false assumption -- namely that a knife attack must be part of a system. Not true at all. A system is an collection of attacks and defenses organized for communication (e.g. basic training). It is not the actual attack/application. Nor does the attack require the system to exist. It exists by itself and independent of the system, even if it has been incorporated into a particular system. (It's that whole box/room thing again).

On top of that little fact, there is no such thing as a superior knife fighting system because there is no such thing as a professional knife fighter! Nobody makes his living being a knife fighter! Another reason why there is no such thing as a superior knife fighting system is, quite frankly, areas where knife fighting is common are economically depressed. That is to say, if they could afford better, longer range weapons, they would use them instead. In other places where knife work is common, there are severe limitation on weapons availability -- including knives -- as such, stabbing slashing weapons are improvised. These weapons are a) not reliable, b) limited in scope of use and c) must be small enough to be concealable both on the person and from cell/room/locker search.

Contrary to what you might believe from Okinawian weapon systems, there are not a series of complicated maneuvers for improvised shivs;  the weapon itself cannot withstand anything except limited application. And even then they often break or collapse. Although it is possible to stab someone with a treated piece of paper, you cannot do so multiple times before it gets wet and collapses. That's the reality of improvised stabbing/slashing weapons.

An understanding of knife use is just one of many skill sets in a much larger and over-all survival skill. Without these other skill sets to create a larger skill, you're dead. "Knife fighting" alone won't save you, no matter how superior you think it it. Focusing on only on acquiring a fighting skill set means you neglect others that are even more necessary for survival. I've known too many "tough guys" who forgot this and ended up being shot in the back.

What is also incorrect is to assume that knowing a supposedly superior knife fighting system will automatically instill in you the willingness, commitment, ferocity and cold-bloodedness to do someone in this manner. I should also add cunning to this list as an overwhelming majority of dedicated attacks are, in fact, ambushes or an unexpected escalation of force. Those few that are not, tend to operate along the lines of assassinations, homicidal rages and/or criminal insanity. You may have issues that attract your attention to the idea of knife fighting, but they are a far cry from actually using a blade on the flesh of another human being. Someone who has gone that far is 99% of the time, not a good person.

The reason I must go to such extreme to clarify what I am and am not talking about is people's tendency to assume that if I am not talking about about an FMA system, I must be talking about another system. Excuse me, but effective  blade use is NOT solely limited to arts that arise from a specific group of archipelagos, WWII combatives, supposed prison systems or alleged systems based on how historical figures used a knife. In fact,  attacking or threatening someone with a knife does not have to belong to any system at all: As the homicide rate by non-trained knifers demonstrates. For being untrained in deadly knife fighting systems, they certainly do have an impressive success rate.

And it is against these people you need to know how to defend yourself, not duelists.

Let me further state: It is neither my message or implication that training in these systems is useless. Training is good. Training, that prepares you for the circumstances you are most likely to encounter, is better. From that idea, I have two quotes about training. One I picked up from Dr. Lynn Sieser at Aiki Solutions, the other is mine.

We do not rise to the level of our expectations, but fall to the level of our training -- Lynn

Train for what happens most and you will be able to handle most of what happens -- Marc

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Threat Displays

Many years ago I identified knifers into two basic categories: Amateurs and Professionals. This idea got out of hand when people (who considered themselves 'knife fighters' or self-defense 'experts') picked it up, started running with it and then started arguing over what they thought -- instead of what I meant.

I was trying to point out an important difference between how people attack with knives. However, the misinterpretations and arguments that resulted from this idea resemble the Sermon on the Mount scene from Monty Python’sLife of Brian.

I’d like to reframe this idea to clear up the confusion that has arisen. In his book On Killing, Lt. Colonel Dave Grossman takes the old fight or flight model of violence and gives it a much needed refurbishing. He suggests that there are, in fact, 4 possible reactions to violence and the threat of violence.

   1) Fight

  2) Flight

     3) Posture (threat display)

     4) Submit

Number three is the reaction I’d like to address. According to Dr. Desmond Morris in The Human Animal, mankind is actually an amazingly non-violent species. To understand why this is, we must recognize that threat displays are designed to avoid having to use violence. The idea is if I jump up and down and go “booga-booga-booga!” loud enough, you’ll run away (or change your behavior). If you do that, problem solved and I don’t have to risk physical violence.(1)

Here’s the problem with that, in the middle of an argument, people get emotionally committed to “winning” to the point of myopia. They are so wrapped up in the creation and escalation of a situation that common-sense goes out the window. This commonly occurs in two basic ways. First the threat display spins out of control. The second way is the threat display is dismissed by the other person.

I often say the stupidest last words ever spoken when looking down the barrel of a gun is “You don’t have the guts (especially when said in Spanish)” and yet, you’d be amazed at the number of shootings that come about because of this attitude. This is a clear example of the second way.(2). People end up leaking on the floor because they are so committed to winning an argument they fail to see when the situation has changed into something else. They still think it is about threat display, counter display and 'winning' when in fact it has moved a hair's breadth away from homicide.

In a solid majority of situations where a weapon is pulled, it IS done as a threat display. The intent to attack isn’t there – yet. It’s upping the ante in a conflict to show how serious a person is that you’d better stop what you are doing. It’s kind of a “See this weapon? If you don’t back off, I’ll use it.”  This is especially true when someone pulls a knife when they themselves are feeling threatened.

Unfortunately, that often isn't how this action is received. Realize that we're talking about people operating on the screaming-monkey-brain level here. Threat display is a very real inner-species reaction and many components are hardwired into our primate brain (ergo, the screaming-monkey-brain). While it may sound stupid in the calmness of reading, in the heat of the moment, it is easy for the other person not to recognize (or dismiss) the danger. That's because he or she is too focused on winning. Despite the weapon's presence, that person thinks he/she can keep on arguing. This is where many of the dismissing comments come from (e.g., You don't have the guts). These comments and the refusal to run like a rabbit arise from failing to realize that the situation has just escalated into something far more important -- and dangerous -- than one's personal feelings. The person facing the weapon is so committed to an emotional loop  that even though they are looking at the weapon, they fail to see the danger.

Unfortunately in this state all too many people are making emotional, not rational decisions. Remember the person making the threat display is scared, angry and emotional as well. Both of you are feeding the other's emotional turmoil with your own. This isn't thinking as much as it is operating on the 'screaming monkey' level. Therefore, no matter what the motivation for refusing to withdraw, failing to do so IS going to escalate the situation.

And this escalation includes the person doing the threat display 'striking' the other person as the next level of his "go away so I don't have to engage inreal violence" strategy. In normal circumstances this would just be akin to a warning slap or a punch -- not necessarily to harm, but to convince the other person to back off. Yes, it is a physical assault, but it is meant as just another stage of threat display. However, when holding a knife, such a blow becomes, if not fatal, then the inflicting of grievous bodily injury(3).

This is what I was referring to when I spoke of "amateur" knife attacks. It is an uncoordinated and unplanned method of attacking. And even though they are actually attacking, most of the time the intent to attack is lacking. It is a threat display that has spun out of control.

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Territorial vs. Predatorial Violence

It is here that I’d like to bring in the idea of different kinds of violence. We’ll start with Peyton Quinn’s identification of two types, Territorial and Predatorial violence (Explained in Experience and reality based self-defenseDVD set). Understand that predatorial violence doesn’t give you a choice. In our interpretation, the guy is there for violence and it’s going to happen.This is what most people fear. Unfortunately, this fear can blind them to the fact that predatorial violence is exceedingly rare. Most violence is, in fact, more territorial in nature – and therefore avoidable.

Territorial violence gives you a choice. This choice usually comes in the form of a solution. Option A is “leave” (or “stop doing something.”) Option B is to be attacked. Look closely at option A, nothing more is demanded of you. Furthermore, inherent in the offer is the promise that if you choose option A,you will not be attacked. That's what they mean by "leave or I'll kick your butt."  There's no hidden message or secondary agenda, it's all right there on the table.

It is important to realize that most fights are based in this pattern. Whether it is realistic or not, the attacker feels he is defending his ’territory.’ Something in his little pea-brain has identified you as the transgressor in his space. It is here that threat displays play a critical role. He isn’t going to say “Excuse me old chap, but I think perhaps you should withdraw, eh what?” Usually, he’s going to be howling, barking and drooling -- displaying threat signals to convince you how serious he is about you needing to leave. (Take note however, that among truly dangerous people, the threat display can be as subtle as a low key “You better leave.”)

Recognize how close to violence a threat display is – but it hasn’t actually gone there …YET! But is a very small step. If you decide to take option A, there is a good chance violence will not happen. Why?  Because the threat display worked; the situation is over. He’s got no reason to continue.

However, if you don’t choose option A  – for whatever reason – YOU are contributing to moving the situation into physical conflict. He tells you to leave, you say ‘no’ and it’s on. And it's on because you caused it to be.

Remember we said that staying escalates a situation? Here is where a lot of people, who don’t understand the difference between territorial and predatorial violence, make a fatal error. They are so scared of violence happening that they actually cause it to happen. The most common reason for this can be found in  * said in a squeally, panicky voice * “But what if he follows me?!?” (4)

HELLLOOOOOO! Here’s two dollars. Go buy a cup of coffee so you can wake up and smell it. If you attempt to leave (without throwing in some snide comment to provoke him) and he follows you, it bolsters YOUR claim that itwas self-defense. “I tried to leave, he followed me to attack. See? Self-defense!”

However, if your fear that he might follow you keeps you there, it undermines your claim that it was self-defense. Why? Because people who are fighting – although they claim it was self-defense – stick around to fight. In fact, that’s kind of one of the best indicators that it was a fight (illegal) as opposed to self-defense (legal). Cops, DA’s and judges see it all the time, so it doesn’t look good when you do it. No matter what your motivation was for not withdrawing, it makes you look guilty of helping to make the problem.

With this in mind, let’s take another look at pulling a knife as a threat display. Often in a heated argument, someone will pull a knife to show how serious he is about why you better leave off. This is NOT predatorial, it is instead territorial! He's telling you to back off and doesn't want anything else. While in a calm and rational state of mind it is obviously stupid to stick around and continue to argue, in a heated game of ‘escalato’ it is easy to think he’s bluffing and call him. Well, except for one thing, he has a lethal weapon in his hand and is in a highly emotional and agitated state. What do you think is going to happen?  DUH!

As a side note, I have actually witnessed people snap out of this kind of escalation after they have severely wounded or killed someone. They are so wrapped up in their rage and emotions, they don’t see the danger of what they are doing until it is too late. After the other person hits the floor bleeding, they snap out of this enraged state and are shocked at what they have done. This is where you get the Einstein excuse of “I didn’t mean to shoot him.”

I've already made this point, but because of squabbling morons who think they are knife fighting studs, I have to say it again. What I referred to long ago as an 'amateur' attack refers to the kind of attacks that arise from these sort of escalating situations. That is to say threat displays that escalate because emotional stress. A key component to recognizing this kind of situation (aside from all the yelling and screaming) is the waving and brandishing of the weapon. Putting that in simple English, he will show you the knife. You have to see it to know the threat exists so you can make an informed decision to beat feet. If the brandishing of the knife fails, when he 'attacks'  he will lead with it (e.g., wild slashes).

When you’ve told someone holding a knife that he doesn’t have the guts to use it, what will usually happen is that he will attempt to strike you. The physics of his attack are akin to a  sloppy punch, hit or slap. In fact, as is often the case, he’s thinking that it is just another stage in the threat display. Even though he’s struck you, he’s still offering you the chance to leave. Except, oops, he’s punching you with a knife in his hand.

Threat displays that escalate into attacks are usually disorganized and wild kinds of attacks, but the presence of a knife make them dangerous. Whether someone is attacking you in an organized fashion or just wildly flailing, that knife is going to cut flesh. This is why a knife is legally defined as a lethal instrument. And its use – even if closed – is viewed as a lethal force attack.

Whereas what I referred to as a ‘professional’ attack, is more predatorial in nature. You have no option except to participate. That’s because the guy is coming into kill you. Not rob you, not to intimidate you, not to convince you to leave, not to teach you a lesson … to kill you. This is no threat display where violence might happen, it IS happening. In these cases you will very seldom see the knife until after it has entered the flesh of the victim (and then you only usually see it as it is pulled out for another stab)

These are NOT, repeat not, the coordinated and graceful kind of attacks you see in what is being sold as Filipino Martial Arts. That’s a different set of physics for a different situation. (Namely, where your opponent has a weapon in his hand and poses a danger to you. You attack differently in these circumstances because you may need to slam it into reverse right quick if he counters). They are full on committed attacks designed to overwhelm you and prevent you from resisting as you are killed.

In light of this, the knife seldom leads. In fact, the opening move of these kinds of attacks is usually some kind of grab or pinning of the victim’s limb(s). This traps the victim into the location and prevents him from being able to escape or effectively resist. Such assaults, while they can be done by one person, are often two people working in tandem. One person pins the victim and the knifer stabs him repeatedly.

The good news about these kinds of attacks is that they are comparatively speaking very rare. I say comparatively because in some circles they are very common (e.g. prison).

The greatest number of knife assaults stem from a threat display that went sideways.

nother bit of good news is that in order to encounter predatorial attacks you really need to have been misbehaving. People don’t attack in this manner unless you’ve seriously crossed a line. Is there a chance that a lunatic might decide that you are the Anti-Christ and the only way to save his soul is to kill you? Well, yes, but realistically you have a better chance of being hit by lightening.

On the other hand, messing with another man’s wife, burning someone in a drug deal or telling a biker to go do an unnatural act with his mother might just make you a candidate for such an attack. So does living a high-risk lifestyle and running with the big dogs, so take my advice and don’t play unless you’re willing to pay. The good news about these kind of knifers is that if you leave them alone, they will usually leave you alone.

By now you’ve probably asked yourself “But what about getting robbed with a knife?”  Good point. That is a third type of violence: Criminal. Here is where we make another difference from Peyton's system. Criminal violence, while predatorial, usually involves both giving a person an option, (namely “give me what I want or I will hurt you”) and displaying the weapon. Bascially you have to see the weapon to recognize the degree of threat so you will choose to give him what he wants.

The difference is that unlike a screaming fight that escalates the criminal has slyly moved into attack position before he displays the weapon. And when it is displayed, it isn't brandished, it's in attack position. The attack is already lined up and ready to execute if you don’t comply. Unlike the wild flailing of an emotional threat display, the attack will be more professional and focused. Also unlike territorial violence, Option A is going to cost you something (Money, goods or rape). This is why we say criminal violence, while predatorial in nature has many elements of territorial violence. And, that this blending is often the source of confusion to people who have not experienced the different types first hand.

The problem posed by criminal violence is that while you do have a moment to react, if you react ineffectively you’re dog meat. You don't want to get into an exchange where you are trading punches for stabs. That's a bad trade off and one you are going to lose. If you hesitate too long or if your actions don’t immediately render him unable to act, then you are going to get cut … and cut bad.

By now you should realize that both predatorial and criminal knife use would fall under the category of "professional." And putting it bluntly, while there is no such thing as a 'professional knife fighter,' there are knifers out there that are so slick and smooth that the only thing to call them is professionals. Putting it nicely, I've seen knife work out there that is so good it scares the beejeebers out of me. And it had nothing to do with all the flash and twirl you see in commericalized Filipino Martial Arts schools or self-proclaimed 'knife fighting' associations and groups. It was stone cold murder.

People often think of knife fighting as two guys slashing each other wildly with blades. With this limited misconception, they think their FMA, combat whatever or 'weapons based' martial art training prepares them for dealing with knives. I, on the other hand, see "knife work" as covering a much wider spectrum of danger. And in that spectrum there are all kinds of horrors and problems that macho, swaggering self-proclaimed "knife fighters" have no clue about. And yet these are the people who dis' me because I talk about amateur and professionals when it comes to using a knife on another human being. Personally, I'd recommend you think long and hard before you risk your life on their opinion about what's involved in "a real knife fight" and why their training is so good

1) Dr. Morris further stipulates in "Manwatching: A Field Guide to Human Behavior." "Fighting represents the failure of threat display. If intimidation signals cannot settle a dispute, then extreme measures may be called for, and conflict may develop into full-scale bodily assault. This is extremely rare in human societies, which are remarkably non-violent, despite popular statements to the contrary, and there is a sound biological reason for this. Every time one individual launches a physical attack on the body of another, there is a risk that both may suffer injury. No matter how dominant the attacker may be, he has no guarantee of escaping unscathed. His opponent, even if weaker, may be driven into a desperate frenzy of wild defensive actions, any one of which could inflict lasting damage." (pg. 156)

2) Obviously most situations are a blend of these two basic elements. However for communication purposes we have separated them into distinct categories. In practice, they tend to escalate off each other.

3) Hopefully the range will be wrong and the person holding the knife will just be flailing and slashing. These kind of 'attacks' are also a form of threat display. By themselves, they are not in effective range. Unfortunately too many people who are caught in the 'escalato follies' and martial artists (who believe they are trained to handle knife attacks) actually step into the blade's range. And they get cut for their efforts.

4) A big part of the problem is that people trapped in the 'screaming monkey mind (WIMs) don't hear the 'or' in the territorial threat display (i.e. leave or I will kick your butt). Instead they hear 'AND.' That is to say, they are so afraid of being attacked that they hear "leave and you will be attacked." Thinking they have no option, they decide to stay. Violence occurs if you decide not to take option A. And it is violence that you have directly participated in the cause.